Andrew J. Sopko, For a Culture of Co-Suffering Love: The Theo-Anthropology of            Lazar Puhalo


                                                       Outline of Chapters


Introduction: Orthodox Christianity and Culture


                  A theology of culture lies at the very heart of Orthodox Christianity. The

                 Church Fathers themselves are the Church’s pre-eminent theologians of culture

                  and contemporary theologians must continue this patristic tradition. Lazar

                  Puhalo has done this through his own engagement with various aspects of

                  modern culture.


I.                    Christian Existentialism


As an “anti-philosophy,” that emphasizes existence over essence, Puhalo demonstrates that many themes of existentialism can be discovered in Orthodox Theo-anthropology. The experience of both the individual Christian and the corporate ecclesial body overcomes alienation, bringing about the encounter between God and man.


II.                 Gender as Prophecy


Rather than opposing men and women by assigning them different roles as society often attempts to do, Puhalo gives both genders a prophetic function. The priesthood of men and women is meant to unite not just the sexes but the entire world into a harmonious relationship with God.


III.               Beyond Morality and Ethics


            From Puhalo’s perspective, all systems of morality and ethics need to be

            transcended for, since the Middle Ages, they have largely lost any connection

            with theology. Puhalo echoes Antony Khrapovitsky: “Perfect holiness consists  

            in perfect love rather than in correct behavior.” Such co-suffering love

            identifies with not only other individuals but also the problems of society in



IV.              Science and Theology as Empirical Quest


Puhalo sees Orthodox theology as sharing a closer relationship with the science exemplified in modern physics than either Catholic scholasticism or Protestant fundamentalism. The Church has nothing to fear from science and its empirical methodology bears a close relationship to the experiential aspects of Orthodox Theo-anthropology. Outside the realm of “pure science,” the creation of technology must always conform to the divine will for the universe.


V.                 The Aesthetics of Reality


The divergence in the sacred art of the Christian east and west meant that the more symbolic Semitic approach of the east was rejected in favor of a more realistic art in the west that began to conceive the passion of the moment as reality. For Puhalo, the “reverse perspective” of the icon erases the distinction between the “work of art” and the viewer. Thus, the viewer is invited to become a partaker of the Gospel, the true reality.


VI.              Last Things


            The autonomous, pluralistic societies of the West present a competing array of

            beliefs, especially concerning eschatology. Many of the viewpoints espoused

            today have more to do with New Age ideas than with Christianity. Within this

            context, this chapter gives particular attention to Puhalo’s analysis of such

            phenomena as the so-called “out-of-body-experience” and the “near-death



Epilogue: Church and/or World


                  The primary strength of Puhalo’s theology of culture emanates from the fact

                  that it is founded upon an existential and empirical theology rather than a

                  speculative one. While it may display some deficiencies, it still succeeds in

                  permeating the various aspects of culture with the sense of a mission of co-

                  suffering love.    


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